For the Love of Learning

Recommendations

This section includes the complete set of recommendations of the Royal Commission on Learning.

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Chapter 7: The Learner from Birth to Age 6

The Commission recommends:
1. That Early Childhood Education (ECE) be provided by all school boards to all children from three to five years of age whose parents/guardians choose to enrol them. ECE would gradually replace existing junior and senior kindergarten programs, and become a part of the public education system;
2. That the ECE program be phased in as space becomes available;
3. That, in the implementation of ECE, the provincial government give priority funding to French-language school units;
4. That the Ministry of Education and Training develop a guide, suitable for parents, teachers, and other caregivers, outlining stages of learning (and desirable and expectable learner outcomes) from birth onwards, and that it link to the common core curriculum, beginning in Grade 1. This guide, which would include specific learner outcomes at age 6, would be used in developing the curriculum for the Early Childhood Education program.

Chapter 8: The Learner from Age 6 to 15

The Commission recommends:
5. That learner outcomes in language, mathematics, science, computer literacy, and group learning/interpersonal skills and values be clearly described by the Ministry of Education and Training from pre-Grade 1 through the completion of secondary school, and that these be linked with the work of the College Standards and Accreditation Council, as well as universities; and that clearly written standards, similar in intent to those available in mathematics and language (numeracy and literacy), also be developed in the other three areas;
6. That the acquisition of a third language become an intrinsic part of the common curriculum from a young age up to Grade 9 inclusively, with the understanding that the choice of language(s) taught or acquired will be determined locally, and that the acquisition of such a third language outside schools will be recognized as equivalent by an examination process, similar to what we term challenge exams within the secondary school credit system;
7. That all elementary schools integrate a daily period of regular physical exercise of no less than 30 minutes of continuous activity as an essential part of a healthy school environment. Schools that have problems scheduling daily periods should, as a minimum, require three exercise periods per week;
8. That, at the Grade 1-5/6 level, an educator monitor a student's progress during the years the student is at the school, and be assigned responsibility for maintaining that student's record;
9. That the Ministry of Education and Training and the local boards of education provide incentives to large middle (and secondary) schools to create smaller learning units, such as schools-within-schools or houses;
10. That, beginning in Grade 7, every student have a Cumulative Education Plan, which includes the student's academic and other learning experiences, is understood to be the major planning tool for the student's secondary and post-secondary education, and is reviewed semi-annually by the student, parents, and by the teacher who has a continuing relationship with and responsibility for that student as long as she or he remains in the school;
11. That curriculum guidelines be developed in each subject taught within the common curriculum, to assist teachers in designing programs that will help students achieve the learning outcomes in The Common Curriculum. These guidelines should include concrete suggestions on how teachers can share with parents ways to help their children at home;
12. That the Minister of Education and Training amend the regulations to enable school boards to extend the length of the school day and/or school year;
13. That the Ministry of Education and Training work with curriculum and learning specialists to develop strategies (based on sound theory and practice and enriched with detailed examples) for providing more flexibility in the amount of time available to students for mastering curriculum;
14. That local schools and boards be allowed to develop and offer programs in addition to those in The Common Curriculum, as long as those options meet provincially developed criteria, and as long as at least 90 percent of instructional time is devoted to the common curriculum for Grades 1 to 9.

Chapter 9: The Learner from Age 15 to 18

The Commission recommends:
15. That the Ministry of Education and Training review community college education - its mandate, funding, coherence, and how it fits into the system of education in Ontario, including clarification of access routes from secondary school to college, and with special attention being paid to students who are not university-bound;
16. That secondary school be defined as a three-year program, beginning after Grade 9, and that students be permitted to take a maximum of three courses beyond the required 21, for a total of not more than 24 credits. We further recommend that all courses in which the student has enrolled - whether completed or incomplete, passed or failed - be recorded on that student's transcript;
17. That only two, not three, differentiated types of courses should exist;
18. That some courses, (to be called Ontario Academic Courses, or OAcCs) be offered with an academic emphasis; that others (to be called Ontario Applied Courses, or OApCs) be offered, with an emphasis on application; and that still others be presented as common courses, blending academic and applied approaches, and with no special designation;
19. That large secondary schools be reorganized into "schools-within-schools" or "houses," in which students have a core of teachers and peers with whom they interact for a substantial part of their program. Such units may be topic-, discipline-, or interest-focused;
20. That as a mandatory diploma requirement all students participate each year in physical exercise at least three times per week, for not less than 30 minutes per session, either in or outside physical education classes;
21. That as a mandatory diploma requirement all students take part in a minimum of 20 hours per year (two hours per month) of community service, facilitated and monitored by the school, to take place outside or inside the school;
22. That the same efforts to centrally develop strategies and ideas for increasing flexibility and individualization of the pace of learning, which we called for in the common core curriculum, be applied to the specialization years;
23. That a set of graduation outcomes be developed for the end of Grade 12; that they be subject and skill oriented, as well as relatively brief; and that they cover common learner outcomes for all students as well as supplemental learner outcomes for the OAcC and the OApC programs;
24. That students have the option of receiving as many as two international language credits toward their diploma no matter where they obtained their training or knowledge of the language(s) if, upon examination, they demonstrate appropriate levels of language mastery;
25. That the Ontario Training and Adjustment Board (OTAB) be given the mandate to take leadership, working in partnership with school boards, community colleges, and other community partners, to establish programs that will assist secondary school graduates and drop-outs to transfer successfully to the workforce, including increasing opportunities for apprenticeship and for other kinds of training as well as employment counselling;
26. That the Ministry of Education and Training create a brief and clear document that describes for parents what their children are expected to learn and to know, based on the developmental framework of stages of learning from birth to school entrance, The Common Curriculum, and the secondary school graduation outcomes. Succinct information on college and university programs should be also included;
27. That, in order to ensure that all Ontario residents, regardless of age, have access to a secondary school diploma, publicly funded school boards be given the mandate and the funds to provide adult educational programs;
28. That a consistent process of prior learning assessment be developed for adult students in Ontario, and that this process include an examination for a secondary school equivalency diploma;
29. That the Ministry of Education and Training, with its mandate which includes post-secondary education, require the development of challenge exams and other appropriate forms of prior learning assessment by colleges and universities, to be used up to and including the granting of diplomas and degrees;
30. That the right of adults to pursue literacy education must be protected, regardless of employment status or intentions;
31. That COFAM/OTAB immediately define and set aside, for shortand medium-term adult literacy programs, a francophone allotment that is not linked to participation in the workforce, in addition to the francophone programs linked to workforce status and intention.

Chapter 10: Supports for Learning: Special Needs and Special Opportunities

The Commission recommends:
32. That the Ministry make it mandatory for English-language school units to provide ESL/ESD, and French-language school units to provide ALF/PDF, to ensure that immigrant students with limited or no fluency in English or French, and Charter rights holders with limited or no fluency in French, receive the support they require, using locally chosen models of delivery. In its block-funding grants, the Ministry should include the budgetary supplements required to allow the schools to offer these programs wherever the community identifies a need for them.
33. That no child who shows difficulty or who lags behind peers in learning to read be labelled "learning disabled" unless and until he or she has received intensive individual assistance in learning to read, which has not resulted in improved academic performance;
34. That in addition to gifted programs, acceleration, based on teacher assessment, challenge exams, and/or other appropriate measures, become widely available as an important option for students;
35. That when parents and educators agree on the best programming for the student, and there is a written record of a parent's informed agreement, no Identification, Placement, and Review Committee (IPRC) process occur;
36. That when there is no agreement, and an IPRC meeting must take place, a mediator/facilitator be chosen, on an ad hoc basis, to facilitate discussion and compromise, to alleviate the likelihood of a legal appeal; and that the legislation be rewritten to provide for this pre-appeal mediation;
37. That when a student has been formally identified and placed, the annual review be replaced by semi-annual individual assessment that will show whether and how much the student has progressed over a five-month period, and decisions about continuation of the program be made based on objective evidence as well on as the judgment of the educators and parents in regard to the student's progress;
38. That school boards look for ways to provide assistance to those who need it, without tying that assistance to a formal identification process.
39. That, while integration should be the norm, school boards continue to provide a continuum of services for students whose needs would, in the opinion of parents and educators, be best served in other settings;
40. That all elementary school teachers have regular access to a "community career co-ordinator" responsible for co-ordinating the school's community-based, career-awareness curriculum, and working with teachers and community members to build and support the program;
41. That, beginning in Grade 6 or 7 and continuing through Grade 12, all schools have appropriately trained and certified career-education specialists to carry out career counselling functions;
42. That the Ministry, in co-operation with professional career-education groups, the Ontario School Counsellors' Association, and the Association of Career Centres in Educational Settings, and with representation from colleges, universities, and business and labour, develop a continuum of appropriate learner outcomes in career awareness and career education for Grades 1-12;
43. That the Ministry of Education and Training take the lead in working with the Ministry of Health to develop a definition of essential mental-health promotion programs and services that should be available in the school setting; the professional training necessary to provide them; the services that should be offered to students outside the schools and by whom; and the way responsibility for providing these services is shared across ministries;
44. That the Ministry of Education and Training clarify the nature and function of personal and social guidance counselling in schools by:
a) redefining the appropriate training required for a guidance or personal counsellor, and creating and implementing a plan for educating and re-educating those people who are now, or should now be, delivering these services to students; this redefinition should be done in co-operation with the Ontario School Counsellors' Association and representatives of colleges and universities; such training should also be accessible through avenues other than teacher education;
b) ensuring that delivery of these services be implemented by personnel who, after a date to be specified, have received the agreed-on training;
45. That the Ministry of Education and Training develop a new guideline for social/personal guidance to replace Guidance, Intermediate and Senior Divisions, 1984, including a description of the kind of differentiated staffing needed to deliver guidance and counselling services in schools, both elementary and secondary.

Chapter 11: Evaluating Achievement

The Commission recommends:
46. That significantly more time in pre-service and continuing professional development be devoted to training teachers to assess student learning in a way that will help students improve their performance, and we recommend supervised practice and guidance as the principal teaching/learning mechanism for doing so;
47. That the Ministry of Education and Training begin immediately to develop resource materials that help teachers learn to assess student work accurately and consistently, on the specific learner outcomes upon which standardized assessment and reporting will be based;
48. That the Ministry of Education and Training, in conjunction with professional educators, assessment experts, parents, students, and members of the general public, design a common report card appropriate for each grade. To be known as the Ontario Student Achievement Report, it would relate directly to the outcomes and standards of the given year or course and, in all years, would be used as the main vehicle for communicating, to parents and students, information about the student's achievements. While school boards would not be permitted to delete any part of the OSAR, they could seek permission from the Ministry to add to it;
49. That the Ministry monitor its own assessment instruments for possible bias, and work with boards and professional bodies to monitor other assessment instruments; that teachers be offered more knowledge and training in detecting and eradicating bias in all aspects of assessment; and that the Ministry monitor the effects of assessment on various groups;
50. That all students be given two uniform assessments at the end of Grade 3, one in literacy and one in numeracy, based on specific learner outcomes and standards that are well known to teachers, parents, and to students themselves;
51. That the construction, administration, scoring, and reporting of the two assessments be the responsibility of a small agency, independent of the Ministry of Education and Training, and operating at a very senior level, to be called the Office of Learning Assessment and Accountability;
52. That a literacy test be given to students, which they must pass before receiving their secondary school diploma;
53. That the Ministry continue to be involved in and to support national and international assessments, and work to improve their calibre;
54. That the Ministry develop detailed, multi-year plans for large-scale assessments (program reviews, examination monitoring), which establish the data to be collected and the way implementation will be monitored, and report the results publicly, and provide for the interpretation and use of results to educators and to the public;
55. That, initially, and for a five- to seven-year period, until the process is well established in the school system and in the public consciousness, an independent accountability agency be charged with implementing and reporting the Grades 3 and 11 universal student assessments. The reports and recommendations of the Office of Learning Assessment and Accountability would go directly to the Minister and the public;
56. That the Ministry of Education and Training, in consultation with community members and researchers, develop a specific procedure for collecting and reporting province-wide data on student achievement (marks, and Grade 3 and Grade 11 literacy test results) for groups identified according to gender, race, ethno-cultural background, and socio-economic status.

Chapter 12: The Educators

The Commission recommends:
57. That the Education Act be amended to allow instructors who are not certified teachers to supervise students, under specified conditions and circumstances, and to deliver certain non-academic programs. Instructors might be health, recreational, and social-work personnel, or other members of the community, as designated by the school's principal;
58. That a professional self-regulatory body for teaching, the Ontario College of Teachers, be established, with the powers, duties, and membership of the College set out in legislation. The College should be responsible for determining professional standards, certification, and accreditation of teacher education programs. Professional educators should form a majority of the membership of the College, with substantial representation of non-educators from the community at large;
59. That the College of Teachers, in close co-operation with faculties of education, develop a framework for accrediting teacher preparation programs offered by Ontario faculties of education, and that the College be responsible for carrying out such accreditation processes;
60. That faculties of education and school staff who supervise student teachers be accountable for ensuring that those recommended for Ontario Teaching Certificates have the qualities required for admission to the teaching profession, and that those candidates who do not show such qualities be advised to leave teacher preparation programs;
61. That faculties expand their efforts to admit more student teachers from previously under-represented groups, including ethno-cultural and racial minorities, aboriginal communities, and those who are disabled, and that they be accountable to the College of Teachers for demonstrating significant progress toward achieving this objective;
62. That faculties of education, school boards, and teachers' federations develop joint programs to encourage more young people from minority groups to consider teaching as a career, and to ensure that minority youth and adults interested in teaching have opportunities to gain the necessary experience with children and adolescents;
63. That faculties of education establish partnership arrangements with selected school boards and schools in the public, Roman Catholic, and French-language systems that agree to work with faculties in preparing student teachers. In such designated "professional development schools," staff from faculties and from the schools would be jointly responsible for planning the program and for guiding student teachers through their learning;
64. That school staff with responsibility for student teachers be selected jointly by the faculty of education and the school principal, and that they participate in a significant and well-designed preparation program themselves, to ensure that they have a fully developed understanding of the process of learning to teach, and a shared understanding of the skills, knowledge, competencies, and values that beginning teachers should have;
65. That school staff supervising student teachers have significant input into recommendations for certification;
66. That common undergraduate prerequisites be established for entry to pre-service teacher preparation programs, with decisions about specific prerequisites to be made by the College of Teachers, with input from faculties of education and school boards;
67. That faculties of arts and science be encouraged to work with faculties of education to develop suitable undergraduate courses, where these do not exist, in subjects that are prerequisites for entry to faculties of education;
68. That the consecutive program for teacher education be extended to two years, and that one year be added to the concurrent program, and that the Bachelor of Education degree be awarded on successful completion of the two-year program or, in the case of the concurrent program, on completion of the equivalent of the two-year education program;
69. That the current practice-teaching requisite of 40 days be replaced by a requirement that student teachers spend at least that much time observing and working in designated "professional development schools" during the first year of the B.Ed. program, and that they spend a substantial portion (at least three months) of the second year working in schools, under the supervision of school staff. As well, a similar requirement for students in concurrent programs should be established over the length of the pre-service program;
70. That faculties of education recommend to the College of Teachers that those who have been awarded B.Ed. degrees be given a provisional Ontario Teaching Certificate;
71. That the Ontario Teaching Certificate be made permanent on completion of one year's teaching in Ontario, on the recommendation of a qualified principal or supervisory officer. However, this certification process would be quite distinct from the employing board's decision concerning probationary and permanent contracts;

72.

That the College of Teachers develop a set of criteria for certifying staff for school readiness programs, and that whatever preparation and certification requirements are adopted, teachers in early childhood education programs have qualifications equivalent to other teachers, and be equal in status;
73. That the College of Teachers consider how to recognize staff members who are currently licensed as early childhood educators or certified primary teachers and who will be affected by the establishment of school readiness programs for three-year-olds in publicly funded schools;
74. That school boards be required to provide appropriate and sustained professional support to all first-year teachers, to ease their entry into full-time teaching;
75. That mandatory professional development be required for all educators in the publicly funded school system, with continuing certification every five years, dependent on both satisfactory performance and participation in professional development recognized by the College of Teachers;
76. That the Ministry of Education and Training, school boards, and federations, in collaboration with the College of Teachers, investigate and encourage various ways of providing opportunities for professional renewal for teachers and school administrators;
77. That all school boards make information available to the public about their performance appraisal systems, using newsletters or other means, so that students, parents, teachers, and the public are aware of the basis of performance appraisal and the guidelines being followed;
78. That all school board performance appraisal systems include provision for systematically and regularly seeking input from students and parents in regard to teaching, classroom, and school atmosphere, and to related matters about which they may have concerns or suggestions;
79. That beginning teachers have an opportunity to get helpful performance feedback from colleagues other than the principal or vice-principal, understanding that such information will not be used for decisions about permanent contracts. Designated mentor teachers - or in secondary schools, department heads - could provide this assistance;
80. That the College of Teachers, the Ministry, and school boards emphasize that principals are accountable for satisfactory teacher performance in their schools, and that supervisory officers are responsible for ensuring that principals take appropriate action in dealing with teachers whose performance is not satisfactory;
81. That the Ministry, teachers' federations, and school boards reach agreement on any changes required to ensure that policies and practices related to dismissal effectively balance the rights of teachers and the rights of students;
82. That an M.Ed. degree be a requirement for appointment to the position of vice-principal or principal;
83. That the provincial courses to prepare candidates to become principals continue, but that these courses be regularly evaluated, starting immediately, by an external review team, composed of practising principals, supervisory officers, academics in the field of educational administration, and at least one member from outside Ontario. The review should be rigorous, to assess how successfully the course addresses the skills and knowledge required, as well as the needs of the system. Continuation of any courses would depend on a satisfactory evaluation;
84. That school boards create a variety of structured experiences through which aspiring and junior administrators can learn leadership skills. Such experiences would include internships or job shadowing, exchanges outside the education field, secondments to a number of different educational settings, and organized rotation of vice-principals to different schools;
85. That appointment to the position of principal or vice-principal be for a five-year term, continuation of the appointment to depend on evidence of participation in, and successful completion of, professional development programs satisfactory to the employing school board, and on satisfactory performance;
86. That in light of recent and proposed changes in the nature and organization of secondary school programs:
a) the role of department head be reviewed, with a view to reducing the number of department heads where appropriate;
b) responsibilities of department heads include supervision and evaluation of teachers in their departments;
c) appropriate professional development be provided for department heads;
87. That school boards review the responsibilities of supervisory officers in light of the changes in governance and organization recommended in this report, with a view to reducing the number of supervisory officers as appropriate, as current incumbents retire, and, if necessary, changing responsibilities assigned to supervisory officers, as organizational needs change;
88. That the Supervisory Officer Qualification Programs continue, but be regularly evaluated, starting immediately, by an independent review team, which would include supervisory officers and academics in educational administration, as well as some members from outside Ontario.The continuation of programs should depend on a satisfactory evaluation from this team;
89. That requirements for admission to the Supervisory Officer Qualifications Program be adjusted, to make it possible for school boards to appoint administrators from outside Ontario as supervisory officers;
90. That school boards provide current and aspiring supervisory officers with increased opportunities for varied experiences, both in and outside the educational system, including exchange programs with government and business;
91. That newly appointed supervisory officers be given a minimum of 15 days release time during their first year in the position, for participation in structured professional development activities such as:
a) working with other supervisory officers to increase their understanding of their new roles;
b) taking part in a study group or series of workshops with other newly appointed supervisory officers;
92. That supervisory officers be appointed for a five-year term, with a continuation of the appointment dependent on successful participation in professional development recognized by the employing board, and on satisfactory performance.

Chapter 13: Learning, Teaching and Information Technology

The Commission recommends:
93. That the Ministry be responsible for overseeing the increased and effective use of information technology in the province's schools, and that its role include:
a) determining the extent and nature of the computer-related resources now in use in schools across Ontario;
b) functioning as an information clearing house for these resources, assuring that all boards are privy to such information, and preventing unnecessary duplication of effort;
c) facilitating alliances among the Ministry, school boards, hardware and software firms, and the private sector;
d) developing common standards jointly with system partners, for producing and acquiring technology;
e) developing license protocols that support multiple remote users accessing centrally held software in a local area network (LAN) or wide area network (WAN) structure; and
f) co-ordinating efforts, including research and special projects, to refine effective educational assessment programs;
94. That school boards in co-operation with the Ministry, the private sector, universities, and colleges, initiate a number of high-profile and diverse projects on school computers and learning, to include a major infusion of computer hardware and software.These projects should reflect the province's diversity, include a distinct and comprehensive evaluation component, and be used for professional development, software design, and policy analysis;
95. That the Minister approach colleagues in other provinces, through the Council of Ministers of Education of Canada, to establish a national network of projects on computers and learning, which can inform teaching and learning from sea to sea;
96. That the proposed College of Teachers require faculties of education to make knowledge and skills in the educational use of information technology an integral part of the curriculum for all new teachers;
97. That teachers be provided with, and participate in, professional development that will equip them with the knowledge and skills they need to make appropriate use of information technology in the classroom, and that acquisition of such knowledge become a condition of re-certification;
98. That the Ministry of Education and Training and the Ministry of Economic Development and Trade, working through learning consortiums and existing federal government programs, co-ordinate efforts with the Ontario business community to distribute surplus computers through Ontario school boards, and that, as more computers are introduced into the school system, priority be given to equipping schools serving low-income and Franco-Ontarian communities;
99. That the Ministry increase the budget allocated for purchasing software on behalf of school boards in Ontario, and that it increase boards' flexibility in using funds to permit leasing or other cost-sharing arrangements, in addition to purchasing, in acquiring information technology equipment;
100. That computer software and all other electronic resources used in education be treated as teaching materials for the purpose of Circular 14 assessment (for quality, balance, bias, etc.);
101. That the Ministry, with the advice of educators in the field, identify priority areas in which Canadian content and perspective are now lacking;
102. That the Ministry exercise leadership with the Council of Ministers of Education of Canada to initiate a program promoting production of high-quality Canadian educational software by Canadian companies and other appropriate bodies, such as school boards, universities, and colleges;
103. That the Government of Ontario, working with school boards and other appropriate agencies, commit itself to ensuring that every classroom in every publicly funded school in Ontario is connected to at least one local computer network and that, in turn, this network is connected to a provincial network, a national network, and the Internet;
104. That school boards, in co-operation with government ministries and appropriate agencies, establish in neighbourhoods where personal computer access is less likely to be prevalent community computing centres, possibly in school buildings or in public libraries, and provide on-going funding for hardware, software, and staffing;
105. That the Ministry support boards in pilot projects that extendthe opportunity for learners to access funded programs and equipment outside the defined school day;
106. That the Government of Ontario advocate that public facilities, such as public libraries and schools, and such non-profit groups as "freenets," be given guaranteed access to the facilities of the electronic highway at an affordable cost (preferably free for users of these facilities);
107. That the Ministry proceed to upgrade Contact North from an audio to an interactive video network.

Chapter 14: Community Education

The Commission recommends:
108. That the Ministry of Education and Training mandate that each school in Ontario establish a school-community council, with membership drawn from the following sectors:
  • parents
  • students (from Grade 7 on)
  • teachers
  • representatives from local religious and ethnic

communities

  • service providers (government and non-government)
  • municipal government(s)
  • service clubs and organizations
  • business sectors;
109. That each school principal devise an action plan for the establishment and implementation of the school-community council;
110. That school boards provide support to principals to establish and maintain school-community councils and that the boards monitor the councils' progress and indicate the progress in their annual reports;
111. That the Ministry of Education and Training, teachers' federations, and school boards take whatever actions are necessary to ensure that community liaison staff persons are sufficiently available to assist principals in strengthening school-community linkages. These staff, who would not be certified teachers, would be responsible for helping to implement decisions and initiatives of the school-community councils as well as other school-community initiatives;
112. That the Premier assign responsibility for reforming children's services to a senior Minister, in addition to his/her regular portfolio; and that this senior Minister be supported by an Interministerial Committee of Ministers responsible for children's services; and that
a) the Committee be assisted by permanent staff;
b) the Committee include the systematic review and revision of
  • service approaches taken
  • quality of services provided
  • funding mechanisms
  • legislation
  • regional organization of authority
  • provincial structures;
c) the Committee establish, through the regional offices of the MET, a leadership and co-ordinating plan between the school boards and the other local providers of services to develop and help implement the mechanisms necessary to support the work of school-community councils;
113. That the provincial government review legislative and related impediments, and that they develop a policy framework for collaboration to facilitate partnerships between community and schools;
114. That the Interministerial Committee of Ministers, under the senior minister responsible, as its first task set a sustainable timeline for implementating community partnership, policies, and mechanisms, with specific points for reporting and disseminating the results of the efforts.

Chapter 15: Constitutional Issues

The Commission recommends:
115. That section 136, which restricts preferential hiring in the Roman Catholic school system, be removed from the Education Act;
116. That, with reference to the role of the Roman Catholic education system, the Ministry of Education and Training ensure appropriate and influential representation from the Roman Catholic education system at all levels of its

professional and managerial staff, up to and including that of Assistant Deputy Minister; and that the Minister establish a Roman Catholic Education Policy and Programs Team or branch in the Ministry;

117. That the Ministry of Education and Training and the faculties of education establish a pre-service credit course in the foundations of Roman Catholic education, and that this course be available at all faculties of education in Ontario;
118. That the religious education courses currently offered at faculties of education receive full credit status and be made part of the regular academic program;
119. That, with reference to the admission of non-rightholders to French-language schools:
a) the Minister of Education and Training give the CEFFO a mandate in consultation with school boards, to propose and ensure the adoption of uniform criteria for the admission of "non-rightholders" or their children;
b) the Ministry of Education and Training require school boards to assume responsibility for making information about these criteria available to the relevant communities, particularly ethno-cultural communities;
c) the composition of committees to admit non-rightholders or their children include one or more Franco-Ontarian parents and one or more parents from ethno-cultural communities;
120. That the Ontario Ministry of Education and Training give the Conseil de l'education et de la formation franco-ontariennes (CEFFO) the mandate to recommend to the Ministry, as soon as possible and on the basis of existing documents, school governance model(s) by and for francophones, encompassing education from pre-school to the end of secondary school without, however, seeking to define structures that are administratively symmetrical to those of the English-language system; and that the government, through the Ontario Ministry of Education and Training, approve and diligently implement the recommendations submitted by the CEFFO with respect to school governance by and for francophones;
121. That funding by the Ministry of Education and Training automatically include among its calculation of grants and weighting factors, for all French-language instructional units, the budgetary supplements required to allow these units to offer, according to the needs identified by the community:
a) accelerated language retrieval programs (designed for recovery, actualization, and skill and development); and
b) the necessary animation culturelle in classes and schools;
122. That for the early childhood education programs (children age 3 to 5), one of our key recommendations in Chapter 7, the provincial government give priority funding to French-language instructional units over every other school;
123. That rather than having the two levels of government work independently of each other, and in order to avoid duplication, the Government of Canada and the Government of Ontario jointly fund for use in both on-reserve schools and schools under provincial jurisdiction, the development of curriculum guidelines and resource materials that more accurately reflect the history of Canada's aboriginal people and their contribution to Canada's literature, culture, history, and values, and in other areas to be incorporated throughout the curriculum;
124. That the Governments of Canada and Ontario jointly fund the development of assessment and teaching strategies that are more sensitive to the learning styles identified by aboriginal educators;
125. That the federal and provincial governments work with Native education authorities and the First Nations to provide better support to students who must live away from their communities to obtain elementary and/or secondary education;
126. That the federal government review its method of funding education for Native students in on-reserve schools to ensure there are adequate funds to provide any necessary special programs to support aboriginal education and for professional support of teachers;
127. That the province include in its requirements for pre-service and in-service teacher education a component related to teaching aboriginal students and teaching about aboriginal issues to both Native and non-Native students;
128. That the federal government, which has responsibility in this field, give top priority to ensuring the availability of good telecommunications throughout Ontario in order to support education through the use of interactive video and computer networking;
129. That both the federal and provincial governments provide resources to support the development of courses, initially video- and CD-ROM-based, that would use interactive technology when an adequate telecommunication infrastructure is in place;
130. That the federal government provide assistance to aboriginal peoples to develop language teaching resources co-operatively with communities that use the same languages, in other provinces and in the United States;
131. That the province, in co-operation with First Nations communities and school boards, develop guidelines for permitting the use of Native languages as languages of instruction, where teachers and teaching resources are available;
132. That the provincial and federal governments continue their programs to develop resource materials that support the teaching of Native languages and culture for teacher in-service and for classroom use in on- and off-reserve schools, providing such materials are made available to other boards and schools;
133. That the Ministry and the representatives of the First Nations review the Declaration of Political Intent proposal on Native trustee representation, taking into account possible changes in overall board structures that could follow the issue of this report, and that at the earliest opportunity the parties implement the agreement that results;
134. That the federal and provincial governments continue negotiations that lead to full self-governance of education by the First Nations;
135. That the province develop a different way of dealing with band-operated elementary and secondary schools than it now has. Such a method would:
a) recognize that they are publicly funded schools of a First Nation, governed by a duly constituted education authority; and
b) permit more reciprocity and co-operation with provincial school boards.

Chapter 16: Equity Considerations

The Commission recommends:
136. That the Ministry of Education and Training always have an Assistant Deputy Minister responsible, in addition to other duties, for advocacy on behalf of anglophone, francophone, ethno-cultural and racial minorities;
137. That trustees, educators, and support staff be provided with professional development in anti-racism education;
138. That the performance management process for supervisory officers, principals, and teachers specifically include measurable outcomes related directly to anti-racism policies and plans of the Ministry and the school boards;
139. That, for the purposes of the anti-racism and ethno-cultural equity provisions of Bill 21, the Ministry of Education and Training require boards and schools to seek input from parents and community members in implementing and monitoring the plans. This process should be linked to the overall school and board accountability mechanisms;
140. That the Ministry and school boards systematically review and monitor teaching materials of all types (texts, reading materials, videos, software, etc.), as well as teaching practices, educational programs (curriculum), and assessment tools to ensure that they are free of racism and meet the spirit and letter of anti-racism policies;
141. That in jurisdictions with large numbers of black students, school boards, academic authorities, faculties of education, and representatives of the black community collaborate to establish demonstration schools and innovative programs based on best practices in bringing about academic success for black students;
142. That whenever there are indications of collective underachievement in any particular group of students, school boards ensure that teachers and principals have the necessary strategies and human and financial resources to help these students improve.

Chapter 17: Organizing Education

The Commission recommends:
143. That all boards have at least one student member, entitled to vote on all board matters, subject to the usual conflict-of-interest and legal requirements;
144. That student councils be given the responsibility for organizing students' views on all aspects of school life, and for transmitting these views to teachers and principals with responses sent back to students in a systematic way, and that they provide advice to student trustees;
145. That the Minister of Education and Training establish a Student and Youth Council, to advise on all educational matters, to seek further ways to involve students in decisions that affect their lives, and to sponsor research about what students can do to improve learning in schools;
146. That the Ministry organize a collaborative process for developing a Students' Charter of Rights and Responsibilities, and that the process include a significant role for students. The essential elements of such a charter must include a description of the kind of information a student is entitled to receive, the programs and services to which a student is entitled, the responsibilities a student is expected to accept, the role that students are entitled to play in the decisions made in the system, and the recourse available if students feel that their rights have not been upheld;
147. That students be involved in developing and regularly reviewing codes of behaviour and other selected policies and procedures that flow from the Students' Charter of Rights and Responsibilities at both board and school levels. These policies and procedures may not take away from the rights and responsibilities specified in the charter;
148. That information about the students' charter and all policies and procedures that directly affect students be made available to all students in a way most students can readily understand;
149. That the Ministry phase in a policy requiring school boards to turn over an increasingly significant portion of the school budget to principals, on the condition that the school have a school growth plan; that this plan be monitored by the board; that teachers participate in decision-making concerning curriculum, assessment, professional development, and staffing; and that the school demonstrate how it reaches out to students, parents, and the community;
150. That a Parents' Charter of Rights and Responsibilities be developed at the provincial level as a result of collaboration among parents, teachers, administrators, and political decision-makers;
151. That parents be involved in developing student codes of behaviour, and other policies and procedures that flow from the Students' and Parents' Charter of Rights and Responsibilities at both board and school levels;
152. That information about the students' and parents' charters and all policies and procedures that directly affect students and parents be readily available to parents;
153. That all schools in Ontario be accountable for demonstrating the ways in which they have strengthened parents' involvement in their children's school learning;
154. That the Minister of Education and Training, in consultation with the provincial trustees' associations, review and revise the legislation and regulations governing education, in order to clarify the policy-making, as distinct from the operational, responsibilities of school board trustees;
155. That the Ministry set a scale of honoraria for trustees, with a maximum of $20,000 per annum;
156. That following the proposed shift to the provincial government of the responsibility for determining the funding of education, the two-tiered governance structure of the public schools in Metropolitan Toronto be phased out, with the Metropolitan Toronto School Board being replaced by an administrative consortium of school boards in the Metropolitan Toronto area;
157. That the Ministry clearly set out its leadership and management roles, especially in relation to school boards, teacher federations, and faculties of education, and that it develop a plan for more complete communication with all those interested in elementary and secondary education;
158. That, in order to maximize their influence within the Ministry, assistant deputy ministers representing particular constituencies be placed in charge of the portfolio of issues related to their respective constituencies, as well as being responsible for other important dossiers related to education for all Ontarians;

Chapter 18: Funding

The Commission recommends:
159. That equal per-pupil funding across the province, as well as additional money needed by some school boards for true equity, be decided at the provincial level, and that the province ensure that funds be properly allocated;
160. That boards be allowed to raise a further sum, no greater than 10 percent of their provincially determined budget, from residential assessment only;
161. That all residential property owners be required to direct their taxes to the school system they are entitled to and wish to support, and that undirected taxes be pooled and distributed on a per-pupil basis;
162. That the Ministry of Education and Training first decide what it considers to be an adequate educational program for the province, and then determine the cost of delivering this program in various areas of the province, taking into account different student needs and varying community characteristics, such as geography, poverty rates, and language, that affect education costs.

Chapter 19: The Accountability of the System

The Commission recommends:
163. That the government establish an Office of Learning Assessment and Accountability, reporting to the Legislature. Its first responsibility would be the Grades 3 and 11 system-wide, every-student assessments;
164. That the Office of Learning Assessment and Accountability also be responsible for developing indicators of system performance, to be used at the board and provincial levels;
165. That the Office of Learning Assessment and Accountability, working with education stakeholders, also establish guidelines for the content of annual reports prepared by school boards and by the Minister of Education and Training. Further, we recommend that:
a) these reports be published and be freely and widely available in schools and community locations;
b) the Ministry of Education and Training ensure that all school boards be informed of guidelines for the reports, and that they follow those guidelines;
166. That the work and mandate of the Office of Learning Assessment and Accountability be reviewed in five years.

Chapter 20: Implementing the Reforms

The Commission recommends:
167. That an Implementation Commission be established to oversee the implementation of the recommendations made by the Royal Commission on Learning.

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